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Was Jesus invented through ancient myths?


Monday, February 11, 2013

There's always something-part II By: Thomas Lindley

Part II

Tom is a mathematician working as a technical consultant for NASA and commercial companies. He researches and writes about purely scientific proof that the entity described as God in the Holy Bible, the Qur'an, and the Tanakh must exist. 
Last time, we began a discussion of existence. The object of our discussion is still to determine which of the following is correct:
(1) The universe has always existed
(2) The universe came from nothing

(3) The universe came from something

To that end, we continue this discussion of the universe with the impact of gravity.

The sudden appearance of the Universe indicates that the Universe was once much smaller.

Gravity is what holds the planets, moons, asteroids, comets, stars, galaxies, gas, and dust, so that there is a universe. It holds us to the Earth. Gravity has the same influence on the universe as it has on stars.

After the nuclear fuel is exhausted within a star, gravitation compresses the star surface inward towards its center. As the star begins to contract, its mass becomes increasingly concentrated into an ever smaller volume.
Gravity behaves in a special way when the amount of matter is large, and the occupying volume is small. Stars provide the pattern for what happens when there is a large mass in a small volume.

The effects of gravity become increasingly pronounced. If the star's final mass exceeds a value that is twice the mass of our Sun, Sol (that is, the final mass is more than two solar masses), gravitational attraction increases to infinity.

What do we mean by infinity?
We use numbers to count, in terms of the sequence (1,2,3,…N), to determine quantity. There is, however, a special number, υ. The number, υ, is different than all the other previous numbers. If we continue to count from any other number before υ, we will eventually reach the number υ. So, we call the number υ, the greatest finite number. When we add one to any of the natural numbers: (1, 2, 3,…, N), we get the next higher number.
This is not true for υ.
When we add one to υ, we get infinity.
Gravitational attraction increases to infinity while, at the same time, it shrinks the entire mass of material it’s acting upon.
The gravity is so intense that a beam of light directed from the star will fall back to that star.
The star is now a region where matter collapses to infinite density. Based on Einstein's equations, the radius of that region can be calculated. It’s called the gravitational radius for the item. That region called the Schwarzschild Radius, if the object is not rotating. It is the Kerr Radius when the object is rotating. Every item has this region at which it becomes a black hole.
When the collapsing star passes its Schwarzschild radius, it vanishes because its escape velocity exceeds the speed of light. Nothing, not even light itself, can escape. Hence, this region is called a black hole.
At the center of the black hole, is the location of the matter that is crushed to infinite density. This location is called a singularity.
The radius of our Sun is about 43,000,000 (43 million) miles. Based on its mass, the Schwarzschild radius is about 2 miles. So, if we shrank the Sun to a radius of about 2 miles, it would collapse to a black hole.
A black hole whose mass equals 50 million (50,000,000) suns has a Schwarzschild radius of about 93 million (93,000,000) miles. That is a black hole with a circumference equal to the earth’s orbit around the Sun.
The radius of the universe is about 14 x109 (fourteen billion) light years. Its mass is 3 x1053 kilograms. Its Schwarzschild radius is about 5 x109 (five billion) light years. If it was not rotating, it was a black hole at about a third of what its radius is now. Its Kerr radius is about 2 x109 (two billion) light years. The universe was probably rotating, so it was a black hole at about an eighth of what its radius is now.

Isaac Newton proved that an object at rest or in uniform motion will stay that way unless acted upon by an external force. If you don’t think this is true, when driving, try stopping your car by pushing on the back seat.
 That force from pushing on the back seat is internal. So, pay up your insurance and make out your will before you try it. Pushing on the brake pedal, however acts on the tires within in turn act on the ground. The tires acting on the ground is an external force.

Since the universe exists as it is today, we recognize that the behavior of the Universe is the same as the gravitational collapse of massive stars. The gravitational collapse process can only be reversed if there is an infinite force. This infinite force is necessary to overcome the infinite gravitational attraction of the black hole process, the gravitational collapse.
This infinite force had to be external to the Universe, not within it.
We have the problem of two different sets of attributes:
Among the attributes in the list that describes our universe based on present day observation, we have:

(1) Contains all that is material

(2) It is expanding

Among the attributes in the list that describes our universe based on the past history observation of gravity, we have:

(a) Contains all that is material

(b) Can’t expand (because it was a black hole)

(Remember: Nothing, not even light itself, can escape from a black hole. When the collapsing star passes its gravitational radius, it vanishes because its escape velocity exceeds the speed of light.)

(c) Disintegrates due to being a black hole

The two descriptions are opposites of each other. The universe is expanding. The universe, however, should have never expanded. It was a collapsed object, a black hole.

Stephen Hawking has proved that a collapsed object eventually disintegrates. It does not continue to exist. It disappears.

The Universe should not exist. It should have disappeared. It should not have expanded. We should not be here.
We are now in a position to eliminate one of the following former possibilities:

(1) The universe has always existed

(2) The universe came from nothing

(3) The universe came from something

From our discussion, “(1) The universe has always existed” cannot be true.
So, we have:
(2) The universe came from nothing
(3) The universe came from something

To establish whether, “(2) The universe came from nothing, or “(3) The universe came from something”, is true, we examine opposites and why they can never be the same in, There’s Always Something, Part III.
Some References
1. Penrose, R (1965). Gravitational Collapse and Space-Time Singularities, Physical Review Letters 14, pp 57-59.
2. Hawking, Stephen (1996). The Illustrated, A Brief History of Time, Bantam Books, New York.
3. Copi, I. and Cohen, C. (2001), Introduction to Logic, Prentice Hall, New York
4. Lindley, Thomas (2008). Eternal Origin, Volume II, Observation, A Teacher, Xlibris Corporation, New Jersey

Watch a real debate about God right here!

Professors Richard Dawkins and John Lennox go head-to-head once again for another remarkable match of intellect.
This time, the same two Oxford Professors who debated in Birmingham's 'God Delusion' Debate are at it again on their home turf at the site of the famed 1860 Evolution debate between Huxley and Wilberforce.